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SCAMHC serves all individuals regardless of inability to pay. Discounts for essential services are offered based on family size and income. For more information, contact (334) 222-2523 or our 24/7 Helpline at 1-877-530-0002.



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Depression References

Scott D. Olson, ND

St. John’s Wort

Linde K, Mulrow CD, Berner M, Egger M.  St John's wort for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD000448.

Morelli V, Zoorob RJ. Alternative therapies: Part I. Depression, diabetes, obesity. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Sep 1;62(5):1051-60. Review.

Butterweck V. Mechanism of action of St John's wort in depression : what is known? CNS Drugs. 2003;17(8):539-62. Review.

Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD.  St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.): a review of its chemistry,

pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 May;53(5):583-600. Review.

Mannel M. Drug interactions with St John's wort : mechanisms and clinical implications. Drug Saf. 2004;27(11):773-97. Review.

Nierenberg AA, Burt T, Matthews J, Weiss AP. Mania associated with St. John’s wort. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46:1707–8.

Moses EL, Mallinger AG. St. John’s wort: Three cases of possible mania induction. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000;20:115–7.



Barbour KA, Blumenthal JA. Exercise training and depression in older adults. Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Dec;26 Suppl 1:119-23. Epub 2005 Oct 11. Review.

Moore KA, Blumenthal JA. Exercise training as an alternative treatment for depression among older adults. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Jan;4(1):48-56. Review.

Brosse AL, Sheets ES, Lett HS, Blumenthal JA. Exercise and the treatment of clinical depression in adults: Recent findings and future directions. Sports Med. 2002;32:741-760.

Lawlor, DA, Hopker SW. The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ. 2001;322:763-767.

Ossip-Klein DJ, Doyne EJ, Bowman ED, Osborn KM, McDougall-Wilson IB, Neimeyer RA. Effects of running or weight lifting on self-concept in clinically depressed women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;57:158-161.

Chaouloff, F. Physical exercise and brain monoamines: A review. Acta Physiol Scand. 1989;137:1-13.

Wildmann J, Kruger A, Schmole M, Niemann J, Matthaei H. Increase of circulating beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity correlates with the change in feeling of pleasantness after running. Life Sci.1986;38: 997-1003.

Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Craighead WE, et al. Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:2349-2356.


Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Hibbeln JR. Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet. 1998; 351:1213.

Parker G, Gibson NA, Brotchie H, Heruc G, Rees AM, Hadzi-Pavlovic D.  Omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;163(6):969-78. Review. Erratum in: Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;163(10):1842.

Hibbeln JR. Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers’ milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: A cross-national, ecological analysis, J Affect Disord. 2002;69:15-29.

Tanskanen A, Hibbeln JR, Hintikka J, Haatainen K, Honkalampi K,

Viinamäki H. Fish consumption, depression and suicidality in a general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:512-513.

Marangell LB, Martinez JM, Zboyan HA, Kertz B, Kim HF, Puryear LJ. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:996-998.

Horrobin DF, Peet M. A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoatein patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:913-919.

Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:477-479.

Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu CC, Shen WW. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;13:267-271.

Freeman MP, Wisner KL, Gelenberg AJ, Hibbeln JR. Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in pregnancy. Paper presented at American Psychiatric Association Research Colloquium for Junior Investigators, San

Fransisco, California, May 18, 2003.



Carney MWP, Chary TK, Bottiglieri T, et al. Switch and S-adenosyl-methionine. Alabama J Med Sci 1988;25:316–9.

Mischoulon D, Fava M. Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of depression: a review of the evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;76(5):1158S-61S. Review.

Mischoulon D, Fava M. Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of depression: A review of the evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(suppl):1158S-1161S.

Bottiglieri T, Godfrey P, Flynn T, Carney MW, Toone BK, Reynolds EH. Cerebrospinal fluid S-adenosylmethionine in depression and dementia: Effects of treatment with parenteral and oral S-adenosylmethionine. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990;53:1096-1098.

Kagan BL, Sultzer DL, Rosenlicht N, Gerner RH. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in depression: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:591-595.

Bressa GM. S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) as antidepressant: Meta-analysis of clinical studies. Acta Neurol Scand. 1994;(Suppl)154:7-14.


5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)

Shaw K, Turner J, Del Mar C.   Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003198. Review.


Taylor MJ, Carney SM, Goodwin GM, Geddes JR.  Folate for depressive disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Psychopharmacol. 2004 Jun;18(2):251-6.

Taylor MJ, Carney S, Geddes J, Goodwin G. Folate for depressive disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD003390.

Coppen A, Bailey J. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Affect Disord. 2000;60:121-130.

Godfrey PSA, Toone BK, Cawrney MWP, et al. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Lancet 1990; 336: 392-395.

Coppen A, Chaudhry S, Swade C. Folic acid enhances lithium prophylaxis. J Affect Disord 1986; 10: 9-13.

Passeri M, Cucinotta G, Abate G. Oral 5'-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in senile organic mental disorders with depression: Results of a double-blind multicentre study. Aging Clin Expt Res 1993; 51: 63-71.

Guaraldi GP, Fava M, Mazzi F, La Greca P. An open trial of methyltetrahydrofolate in elderly depressed patients. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1993; 5: 101-105.

Di Palma C, Urani R, Agricola R, et al. Is methylfolate effective in relieving major depression in chronic alcoholics? A hypothesis of treatment. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1994; 55: 559-568.

Bell IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, et al. Vitamin B1, B2 and B6 augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive dysfunction. J Am Coll Nutr 1992; 11: 159-163.

Oren DA, Teicher MH, Schwartz PJ, et al. A controlled trial of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in the treatment of winter seasonal affective disorder. J Affect Disord 1994; 32: 197-200.

Kendell KE, Schnurr PP. The effects of vitamin B6 supplementation on premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 1987; 70: 145-149.

Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, Shaughn O'Brien PM. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ 1999; 318: 1375-1381.

Adams PW, Rose DP, Folkard J, et al. Effect of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) upon depression associated with oral contraception. Lancet 1973; 1: 899-904.



Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Fisher P, Richardson J.  Homeopathy for depression: a systematic review of the research evidence. Homeopathy. 2005 Jul;94(3):153-63.



Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Richardson J.  Yoga for depression: the research evidence. J Affect Disord. 2005 Dec;89(1-3):13-24. Epub 2005 Sep 26.



Allen JJB, Schnyer RN, Hitt SK. The efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of major depressive disorder in women. Psychol Sci. 1998;9:397-401.

Chan J, Briscomb D, Waterhouse E, Cannaby AM. An uncontrolled pilot study of HT7 for “stress.” Acupunct Med. 2002;20:74-77.

Luo H, Meng F, Jia Y, Zhao X. Clinical research on the therapeutic effect of the electro-acupuncture treatment in patients with depression. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998;52(Suppl):S338-340.