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Introduction and Anxiety References

Scott D. Olson, ND


Astin JA. Why patients use alternative medicine: results of a national study.JAMA. 1998 May 20;279(19):1548-53.

Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Adv Data. 2004 May 27;(343):1-19.

Brown CH, Wohlheiter K, Dixon LB. Use of practitioner-based alternative therapies by psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatr Serv. 2005 Nov;56(11):1460-1.

Desai AK, Grossberg GT.  Herbals and botanicals in geriatric psychiatry. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003 Sep-Oct;11(5):498-506. Review.

LaFrance WC Jr, Lauterbach EC, Coffey CE, et al. The use of herbal alternative medicines in neuropsychiatry. A report of the ANPA Committee on Research. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000 Spring;12(2):177-92. Review.

Matthews SC, Camacho A, Lawson K, Dimsdale JE. Use of herbal medications among 200 psychiatric outpatients: prevalence, patterns of use, and potential dangers. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2003 Jan-Feb;25(1):24-6.

Ng B, Camacho A, Simmons A, Matthews SC.  Ethnicity and use of alternative products in psychiatric patients. Psychosomatics. 2006 Sep-Oct;47(5):408-13.

Wheaton AG, Blanck HM, Gizlice Z, Reyes M. Medicinal herb use in a population-based survey of adults: prevalence and frequency of use, reasons for use, and use among their children. Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Oct;15(9):678-85.

Wong AH, Smith M, Boon HS.  Herbal remedies in psychiatric practice. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Nov;55(11):1033-44. Review.



Kava Kava (Piper methysticum)

Anke J, Ramzan I.Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with Kava (Piper methysticum Forst. f.). J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Aug;93(2-3):153-60.

Bilia AR, Gallon S, Vincieri FF. Kava-kava and anxiety: growing knowledge about the efficacy and safety. Life Sci. 2002 Apr 19;70(22):2581-97.

Davies LP, Drew CA, Duffield P, Johnston GA, Jamieson DD. Kava pyrones and resin: studies on GABAA, GABAB and benzodiazepine binding sites in rodent brain. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1992 Aug;71(2):120-6.

Norton SA, Ruze P. Kava dermopathy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 Jul;31(1):89-97.

Pittler MH, Ernst E.  Kava extract for treating anxiety. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD003383.

Stevinson C, Huntley A, Ernst E. A systematic review of the safety of kava extract in the treatment of anxiety. Drug Saf. 2002;25(4):251-61.

Witte S, Loew D, Gaus W.  Meta-analysis of the efficacy of the acetonic kava-kava extract WS1490 in patients with non-psychotic anxiety disorders. Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):183-8.


Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata)

Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Comparative anxiolytic activity profile of various preparations of Passiflora incarnata linneaus: a comment on medicinal plants' standardization. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):283-91.

Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Dec;78(2-3):165-70.

Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H, Khani M. Passion Flower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001 Oct;26(5):363-7.


Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)

Hendricks H: Pharmacological screening of valerenal and some other components of essential oil of Valeriana officinalis. Planta Med 1981; 42:62-8.

Wagner H: Comparative studies on the sedative action of Valerina extracts, valpotriates and their degradation products. Planta Med 1980:; 39: 358-365.

Miyasaka LS, Atallah AN, Soares BG.  Valerian for anxiety disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD004515.

Jacobs BP, Bent S, Tice JA, Blackwell T, Cummings SR.  An internet-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial of kava and valerian for anxiety and insomnia. Medicine (Baltimore). 2005 Jul;84(4):197-207.

Andreatini R, Sartori VA, Seabra ML, Leite JR. Effect of valepotriates (valerian extract) in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. Phytother Res. 2002 Nov;16(7):650-4.


5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)

Kahn RS, Westenberg HG, Verhoeven WM, et al. Effect of a serotonin precursor and uptake inhibitor in anxiety disorders: a double-blind comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan, clomipramine and placebo. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1987; 2: 33-45.

Schruers K, Pols H, Overbeek T, et al. 5-hydroxytryptophan inhibits 35% CO2 induced panic. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2000; 3 Suppl 1: 272.

Kahn RS, Westenberg HG. L-5-Hydroxytryptophan in the treatment of anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord 1985; 8: 197-200.



Larun L, Nordheim LV, et al: Abstract  Exercise in prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression among children and young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;3:CD004691.

Mummery K, Schofield G, Caperchione C.  Physical activity dose-response effects on mental health status in older adults. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2004 Apr;28(2):188-92.

Spirduso WW, Cronin DL.  Exercise dose-response effects on quality of life and independent living inolder adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jun;33(6 Suppl):S598-608;

Larun L, Nordheim LV, Ekeland E, Hagen KB, Heian F. Exercise in prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression among children and young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;3:CD004691.

De Moor MH, Beem AL, Stubbe JH, Boomsma DI, De Geus EJ. Regular exercise, anxiety, depression and personality: a population-based study. Prev Med. 2006 Apr;42(4):273-9. Epub 2006 Jan 24.

Antunes HK, Stella SG, Santos RF, Bueno OF, de Mello MT. Depression, anxiety and quality of life scores in seniors after an endurance exercise program. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2005 Dec;27(4):266-71. Epub 2005 Dec 12.

Manger TA, Motta RW.  The impact of an exercise program on posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2005 Winter;7(1):49-57.


Misc. Herbs

Bhattacharya SK, Ghosal S. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera—an experimental study. Phytomedicine 1998;5:77–82.

Singh RH, Singh L. Studies on the anti-anxiety effect of the medyha rasayana drug, Brahmi (Bacopa monniera Wettst.) Part 1. J Res Ayur Siddha 1980;1:133–48.

Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, et al. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology 2001;156:481–4.

Viola H, de Stein ML, et al. Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects. Planta Med 1995;61:213–6.

Yamada K, Miura T, Mimaki Y, Sashida Y. Effect of inhalation of chamomile oil vapour on plasma ACTH level in ovariectomized rats under restriction stress. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19:1244–6.



Bruce M et al. Anxiogenic effects of caffeine in patients with anxiety disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:867–9.



Lo CW, Chung QY. The sedative effect of acupuncture. Am J Chin Med 1979;7:253–8.

Lamontagne Y, Annable L. Acupuncture and anxiety. Can J Psych 1979;24:584–5.

Taub HA, Mitchell JN, Stuber FE, et al. Analgesia for operative dentistry: a comparison of acupuncture and placebo. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1979;48:205–10.



Kirkwood G, Rampes H, et al:Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;39(12):884-91; discussion 891.