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ADHD References

Scott D. Olson, ND

Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils)

Makrides M, Neumann M, Simmer K, et al. Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Lancet 1995;345:1463-1467.

Colquhoun I, Bunday S. A lack of essential fatty acids as a possible cause of hyperactivity in children. Med Hypotheses 1981;7:673-679.

Mitchell EA, Aman MG, Turbott SH, et al. Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children. Clin Pediatr 1987;26:406-411.

Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, et al. Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:761-768.

Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Abate ML, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems. Physiol Behav 1996;59:915-920.

Aman MG, Mitchell EA, Turbot SH. The effects of essential fatty acid supplementation by Efamol in hyperactive children. J Abnorm Child Psycho 1987;15:75-90.

Burgess JR, Stevens L, Zhang W, et al. Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:327S-330S.

21. Richardson AJ, Puri BK. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2002;26:233–9.

Richardson AJ. Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders.

Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;18(2):155-72. Review.


Ginkgo and Ginseng

Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, Shan JJ, Pang P, Benishin C.Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001 May;26(3):221-8.



Shekim WO, Antun F, Hanna GL. S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) in adults with ADHD: preliminary results from an open trial. Psychopharmacol Bull 1990;26:259-252.


Vitamin B-6

Bhagavan HN, Coleman M. The effect of pyridoxine hydrochloride on blood serotonin and pyridoxal phosphate contents in hyperactive children. Pediatrics 1975;55:437-441.

Coleman M, Steinberg G, Tippett J, et al. A preliminary study of the effect of pyridoxine administration in a subgroup of hyperkinetic children: a double-blind crossover comparison with methylphenidate. Biol Psychiatry 1979;14:741–51.



Sever Y, Ashkenazi A, Tyano S, et al. Iron treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A preliminary report. Neuropsychobiology 1997;35:178-180.

Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Arnulf I, Mouren MC. Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:1113–5.

Konofal E, Cortese S, Lecendreux M, et al. Effectiveness of iron supplementation in a young child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 2005;116:e732–4.



Kozielec T, Starobat-Hermelin B. Assessment of magnesium level in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Magnes Res 1997;10:143-148.

Starobat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Magnes Res 1997;10:149-156.



Bekaroglu M, Aslan Y, Gedik Y, et al. Relationships between serum free fatty acids and zinc, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1996;37:225-227.

Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Khademi M. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371]. BMC Psychiatry 2004;4:9.



Harley JP, Ray RS, Tomasi L, et al. Hyperkinesis and food additives: testing the Feingold hypothesis. Pediatrics 1978;61:818–21.

Levy F, Dumbrell S, Hobbes G, et al. Hyperkinesis and diet: a double-blind crossover trial with a tartrazine challenge. Med J Aust 1978;1:61–4.

Williams JI, Cram DM. Diet in the management of hyperkinesis: a review of the tests of Feingold’s hypotheses. Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1978;23:241–8 [review].

Rowe KS, Rowe KJ. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study. J Pediatr 1994;125:691–8.

Boris M, Mandel FS. Foods and additives are common causes of the attention deficit hyperactive disorder in children. Ann Allergy 1994;72:462–8.

Carter CM, Urbanowicz M, Hemsley R, et al. Effects of a few food diet in attention deficit disorder. Arch Dis Child 1993;69:564–8.

Egger J, Stolla A, McEwen LM. Controlled trial of hyposensitisation in children with food-induced hyperkinetic syndrome. Lancet 1992;339:1150–3.

Prinz RJ, Roberts WA, Hantman E. Dietary correlates of hyperactive behavior in children. J Consult Clin Psychol 1980;48:760–9.

Rosen LA, Booth SR, Bender ME, et al. Effects of sugar (sucrose) on children’s behavior. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56:583–9.

Wolraich ML, Lindgren SD, Stumbo PJ, et al. Effects of diets high in sucrose or aspartame on the behavior and cognitive performance of children. N Engl J Med 1994;330:301–7.

Wolraich ML, Wilson DB, White JW. The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1995;274:1617–21.