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Bipolar References

Scott D. Olson, ND

Omega 3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils)

Marangell LB, Suppes T, Ketter TA, et al: Omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: clinical and research considerations. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Oct-Nov;75(4-5):315-21. Epub 2006 Aug 22. Review.

Parker G, Gibson NA, Brotchie H, et al: Omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;163(6):969-78.


Serotonin Precursors

Riemann D, Vorderholzer U. Treatment of depression and sleep disorders. Significance of serotonin and L-tryptophan in pathophysiology and therapy. Fortschr Med 1998;116:40–2 [review].

Chouinard G, Jones BD, Young SN, Annable L. Potentiation of lithium by tryptophan in a patient with bipolar illness. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:719–20.

Hedaya RJ. Pharmacokinetic factors in the clinical use of tryptophan. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1984;4:347–8.

Prange AJ, Wilson IC, Lynn CW, et al. L-tryptophan in mania: contribution to a permissive hypothesis of affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1974;30:56–62.

Chambers CA, Naylor GJ. A controlled trial of L-tryptophan in mania. Br J Psychiatry 1978;132:555–9.

Murphy DL, Maker M, Goodwin FK, et al. L-tryptophan in affective disorders: indoleamine changes and differential clinical effects. Psychopharmacologia 1974;34:11–20.

van Praag HM, de Haan S. Chemoprophylaxis of depressions. An attempt to compare lithium with 5-hydroxytryptophan. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1981;290:191–201.

Mendlewicz J, Youdim MB. Antidepressant potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan by L-deprenil in affective illness. J Affect Disord 1980;2:137–46.

Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Faulk WE, et al. The antidepressant potential of oral S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;81:432–6.

Friedel HA, Goa KL, Benfield P. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine: A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in liver dysfunction and affective disorders in relation to its physiological role in cell metabolism. Drugs 1989;38:389–417.

Carney MWP, Chary TKN, Bottiglieri T. The switch mechanism in affective illness and oral S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Br J Psychiatry 1987;150:724–5.

Carney MWP, Chary TKN, Bottiglieri T, Reynolds EH. The switch mechanism and bipolar/unipolar dichotomy. Br J Psychiatry 1989;154:48–51.


B-Complex Vitamins

Stoll AL, Sachs GS, Cohen MB, et al. Choline in the treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: clinical and neurochemical findings in lithium-treated patients. Biol Psychiatry 1996;40:382–8.

Lyoo IK, Demopulos CM, Hirashima F, Ahn KH, Renshaw PF. Oral choline decreases brain purine levels in lithium-treated subjects with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: a double-blind trial using proton and lithium magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bipolar Disord. 2003 Aug;5(4):300-6.

Hasanah CI, Khan UA, Musalmah M, Razali SM. Reduced red-cell folate in mania. J Affect Disord 1997;46:95–9.

McKeon P, Shelley R, O’Regan S, O’Broin J. Serum and red cell folate and affective morbidity in lithium prophylaxis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1991;83:199–201.

Lee S, Chow CC, Shek CC, et al. Folate concentration in Chinese psychiatric outpatients on long-term lithium treatment. J Affect Disord 1992;24:265–70.

Stern SL, Brandt JT, Hurley RS, et al. Serum and red cell folate concentrations in outpatients receiving lithium carbonate. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1988;3:49–52.

Coppen A, Abou-Saleh MT. Plasma folate and affective morbidity during long-term lithium therapy. Br J Psychiatry 1982;141:87–9.

Coppen A, Chaudhry S, Swade C. Folic acid enhances lithium prophylaxis. J Affect Disord 1986;10:9–13.

Grisaru N, Belmaker RH. Lithium dosage and inositol levels. Br J Psychiatry 1994;164:133–4.

Levine J, Witztum E, Greenberg BD, Barak Y. Inositol-induced mania? Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:839.

Levine J, Barak Y, Gonzalves M, et al. Double-blind, controlled trial of inositol treatment of depression. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:792–4.

Levine J, Barak Y, Kofman O, Belmaker RH. Follow-up and relapse analysis of an inositol study of depression. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1995;32:14–21.

Shimon H, Agam G, Belmaker RH, et al. Reduced frontal cortex inositol levels in postmortem brain of suicide victims and patients with bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154:1148–50.

Botiglieri T. Folate, vitamin B12, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Nutr Rev 1996;54:382–90 .

Fine EJ, Soria ED. Myths about vitamin B12 deficiency. Southern Med J 1991;84:1475–81.

Goggans FC. A case of mania secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:300–1.

Verbanck PM, LeBon O. Changing psychiatric symptoms in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency. J Clin Psychiatry 1991;52:182–3.



Ransford CP. A role for amines in the antidepressant effect of exercise: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1982;14:1–10.

 Lykouras E, Garelis E, Varsou E, Stefanis CN. Physical activity and plasma cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in manic-depressive patients and healthy adults. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:540–2.

Norman TC, Mathews W, Yohe CD. A case study on the effects of strenuous exercise on serum lithium levels. Nebr Med J 1987;72:224–5.



Naylor GJ. Vanadium and manic depressive psychosis. Nutr Health 1984;3:79–85 .

Naylor GJ, Smith AH. Vanadium: a possible aetiological factor in manic depressive illness. Psychol Med 1981;11:249–56.